Hapu'u in Volcano Village

Hāpuʻu or Hawaiian tree fern [trivia]

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The Hāpuʻu or Hawaiian tree fern (Cibotium menziesii) is what gives many places on Hawaii that “Jurassic park” feel. These plants are native to Hawai’i and can be found at the windward (east) side of most Hawaiian islands at elevations between 1000 to 6000 ft (300 to 1800 meters).

Hapu'u in Volcano VillageThere used to be Hāpuʻu all over the Hawaiian islands, but due to population pressure and their transplantation for landscaping purposes they are becoming more difficult to find. One of the best places to see them (and to get the Jurassic park vibe) is in Volcano Village or in the adjacent Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

Next to their esthetic value Hāpuʻu ferns have a couple of good uses:

Food: The core of the fern is starchy and can be cooked. We have never tried it but since the Hawaiians only ate Hāpuʻu in times of famine, its taste cannot have been that good. (see also the proverb explained below)

Medicine: Different parts of the Hāpuʻu were used by the Hawaiians as medicine.  Applications range from blood purifier to returning loss of appetite, against muscle pains, to make weak persons stronger and to mitigate chest pains [source].

Other uses: The pulu (silky hairs) were used to absorb bodily fluids of deceased people and the trunk of a large specimen can be used as a container for uhi (yam) plants.

Hāpuʻu in Hawaiian proverbs

There is a Hawaiian proverb that mentions the hāpu‘u. It is a saying connected to times of famine and death, and goes as follows:

He hāpu‘u ka ‘ai he ‘ai make (If the hāpu‘u is the food, it is the food of death.)

The reason for this is that during a famine people had to depended on hāpu‘u to stay alive, but the process of making the hāpu‘u edible takes a long time. First, the hāpu‘u needs to be harvested. Then, the imu (underground oven) needs to be prepared, and finally, the three whole days during which the hāpu‘u cooked need to be survived.

If the food was done, then hunger was stayed; if not, there was another long delay, and by that time someone may have starved to death.

If you are interested in Hawaiian proverbs we recommend ‘Ōlelo Noeau : proverbs of the ancient Hawaiian people, published by the Bishop Museum.

Young Hāpuʻu fern
The Hāpuʻu is a tree fern endemic to Hawaii. Normally they grow to be between 7 to 25 ft, but ferns up to 35 (!) ft have been found